Mesin dengan Teknologi Udara Terkompresi


Tujuan dengan teknologi kompresi udara adalah untuk menerapkan kendaraan yang mengkonsumsi jumlah minimal energi untuk melakukan sejumlah pekerjaan , berbeda dengan Internal Combustion Engine- mesin pembakaran internal dengan pemorosan energy yang tidak masuk akal saat menunggu  di lampu lalu lintas , mesin dengan tenaga udara terkompresi dapat dimtikan dan  tidak perlu menunggu dlam keadaan mesin hidup.
Selanjutnya mesin pembakaran internal dalam kendaraan membutuhkan akselerasi saat berputar sekitar 1500 rpm untuk memulai gerakan akselerasi , dibandingkan dengan motor atau mesin dengan tenaga udara terkompresi yang mampu untuk melakukannya di saat berputar satu rpm  saja, yang artinya adalah 1500 kali lebih baik , keadaan seperti  ini biasanya berulang kali dalam padat lalu lintas membuang sejumlah besar energi dengan biaya yang cukup besar untuk lingkungan kita ditambah lagi polusi yang dikeluarkan juga amat besar.
Dalam dunia yang sempurna setiap orang dari kita harus mampu memilih kendaraan yang tepat dan energi untuk kemampuan mereka . Hal ini dimungkinkan dengan teknologi mesin dengan tenaga udara terkompresi  kita dapat memproduksi kendaraan yang membutuhkan komponen lebih sedikit dan karena itu kurang berat , memungkinkan kita untuk mengangkut obyek dimaksudkan atau orang dengan energi minimal daripada membuang-buang sejumlah besar energi untuk kendaraan besar saat ini

Karena mesin ini tidak menggunakan ledakan BBM/BBG dan pembakaran didalamnya, maka bahan yang digunakan juga tidak perlu terlalu kuat dan berat, sehingga aluminium saja sudah cukup mampu I

digunakan untuk membuat mein secara keseluruhan.

Dengan demikian banyak keuntungan yang diraih oleh teknologi ini, antara lain :

  1. Mesin menadi sangat sederhana karena, tidak perlu kelistrikan yang njelimet untuk menyalakan busi (tanpa busi nantinya) dengan tepat waktu.
  2. Mesin menjadi sangat ringan karena semua komponennya dibuat dari aluminium.
  3. Jumlah komponen mesin jadi sedikit, sehingga juga mengurangi keruwetan dan berat mesin.
  4. Akselerasi dapat dimulai dari putaran yang sangat rendah.
  5. Biaya Operasional menjadi sangat murah, karena tidak harus membeli bbm/bbg.
  6. Mesin ini akan menjadi sangat murah dan terjangkau karena bahan dan kesederhanaannya.

Nantinya mesin dengan tenaga udara terkompresi  ini akan lebih Terjangkau, berkelanjutan dan non-polusi , serta  akan menciptakan lapangan kerja baru dan meningkatkan gaya hidup urban . Dengan mesin dengan tenaga udara terkompresi ini kami dapat memproduksi kendaraan untuk semua orang di dunia dengan dampak yang cukup besar pada lingkungan , tidak perlu untuk kendaraan yang akan kecil tapi hanya dibangun lebih cerdas dan ringan , gaya dan kenyamanan akan tetap disertakan.
Kecuali untuk balap mobil, Ada pasti tidak perlu  untuk mempercepat sampai 100 km dalam 3 detik. Saya yakin sebagian besar dari kita akan senang untuk memulai perjalanan dengan tujuan masih sampai di tujun sana pada jendela waktu yang terukur sama.

Sedikit sulit mungkin bila penggunaannya adalah untuk sepeda motor. Bukan masalah mesinnya, namun lebih banyak adalah untuk design tanki kecil pada sepeda motor tersebut. Bila ini bias diatasi, tak ayal sepeda motor pun dapat menggunakan tenaga mesin dengan tenaga udara terkompresi ini.

 

Dengan adanya kenaikan harga energy (bbm/bbg dan listrik), maka rakyatpun akan merasakan keunggulan penggunaan ini bila dengan design khusus pemerintah menggunakanny ebagai pemutar mesin listrik PLN. Alasannya adalah jelas, bahwa produksi listrik menjadi sangat-amat murah karena budget bahan bakar dari sekian triliun dapat dipangkas. Bila listrik murah, maka rakyat akan cerdas  memilih memasak dengan kompor listrik daripada gas yang harganya selalu naik.

Bila digunakan sebagai tenaga penggerak pembangkit listrik, maka PLN perlu membangun tanki udara yang besar untuk menyimpan udara bertekanan. Tanki ini paling bagus bila mampu menahan tekanan hingga 350 bar atau sekitar 5000 Psi.  Sambil energy tekanannya dipakai untuk menggerakkan mesin, tanki dapat langsung diisi dengan kompresor dengan bbm yang minimal. Sehingga perhitungan bbmnya hanyalah bbm yang digunakan untuk menggerakkan compressor.

Semoga bermanfaat….

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PLTS-Pusat Listrik Tenaga Sampah


Tulisan ini paralel engan tulisan di http://green.kompasiana.com/polusi/2013/09/30/plts-pembangkit-listrik-tenaga-sampah-594403.html

PLTS-Pusat Listrik Tenaga Sampah

sampahTempat Pembuangan Akhir (TPA) sampah  selalu saja membuat Kontroversi di kota manapun di Indonesia. Bahkan beberapa tahun yang lalu pernah terjadi perbedaan mendalam antara Pemerintah DKI Jakarta dan Pemerintah Kota Bekasi mengenai TPA (TPST Bantar Gebang) ini. Hal ini  mengindikasikan adanya penanganan sampah Jakarta yang bersifat kompleks, tidak hanya menyangkut TPA, namun juga memerlukan partisipasi publik, manajemen dan teknologi.
Hamparan tanah seluas 108 hektar di TPA itu masih  menjadi gunungan sampah dengan tinggi rata-rata 25 meter.

Bila dilihat rekapitulasi Smpah di sini TPST  http://www.bantargebang.com/?mainid=2 bisa kita lihat per bulannya ada diatas 100 ribu ton sampah dan isa mencapai 250 ribu ton pada bulan Agustus 2012. Gunungan sampah itu sudah belasan tahun dan tidak diolah dan mencemarkan lingkungan. Ini bisa menjadi bom waktu dan sumber penyakit yang melanda warga sekitar TPST. Pencemaran udara (bau dan asap) yang mencapai radius 5 – 10 kilometer itu akan menimbulkan penyakit dalam rentang waktu 15 tahun yang akan datang. Ini tentu membutuhkan biaya sosial dan biaya lingkungan yang tidak murah.
Pencemaran tersebut akibat tidak diterapkannya sistem sanitary landfil yang mestinya dilakukan dalam pengelolaan TPA Bantar Gebang. Semestinya, setiap ketinggian dua meter tumpukan sampah ditimbun dengan 40 sentimeter lapisan tanah. Di dasar timbunan itu dibuat saluran aliran air yang mengalir ke kolam penampungan.
Pemerintah DKI perlu segera mengantisipasi agar sampah tidak menimbulkan bencana banjir dan kerugian yang lebih besar terutama saat musim hujan. Kita khawatir banjir terulang kembali, seperti di tahun 2002, akibat terhambatnya sarana pengangkutan sampah selama berhari-hari.
Sampah Jakarta yang dihasilkan hingga mencapai lebih kurang 6.925 ton per hari harus bisa ditangani dengan cepat dan tepat. Dalam konteks ini, pemikiran penanganan sampah secara regional perlu dipertimbangkan oleh Pemerintah DKI Jakarta. Setiap wilayah, khususnya di titik-titik rawan banjir, harus ada yang bertanggung jawab terhadap persoalan sampahnya masing-masing. Langkah tersebut perlu dilakukan mengingat volume sampah kota yang perlu penanganan intensif dan massif.

 

 

Stirling Engine
Mesin ini ditemukan pada tanggal 27 September 1816, oleh Robert Stirling berdasar permohonan paten untuk economiser dalam di Edinburgh, Skotlandia.

 

Dalam keluarga mesin kalor, Mesin Stirling didefinisikan sebagai mesin regenerasi udara panas siklus tertutup. Dalam konteks ini, siklus tertutup berarti bahwa fluida kerjanya secara permanen terkurung di dalam sistem, di mana mesin siklus terbuka seperti mesin pembakaran internal dan beberapa mesin uap, menukarkan fluida kerjanya dengan lingkungan sekitar sebagai bagiaan dari siklus kerja. Regenerasi berarti bahwa adanya penggunaan alat penukar panas internal, yang dapat meningkatkan efisiensi mesin. Banyak sekali kemungkinan dari penggunaan mesin stirling ini, dengan mayoritas masuk ke kategori mesin dengan piston tolak balik. Mesin stirling secara tradisional diklasifikasikan ke dalam mesin pembakaran eksternal, Sumber panas mesin ini dapat diperoleh dari segala jenis bahan bakar. BBM, BBG, batu bara, sampah dll. Sumber panas bisa didapatkan dari sumber selain pembakaran tsb, seperti tenaga matahari maupun nuklir. Mesin stirling beroperasi melalui penggunaan sumber panas eksternal dan heat sink eksternal, masing-masing dijaga agar memiliki perbedaan temperatur yang cukup besar.

Dengan adanya permasalahan sampah yan tak kunjung selesai di Jakarta dan kota-kota lainnya di Indonesia, maka penggunaan motor stirling dengan bahan bakar sampah sebagai penggerak utama mesin2 pembangkit Listrik sangatlah tepat. Selain membantu menyelesaikan masalah sampah di DKI Jakarta yang sering menimbulkan banjir, pemerintah juga akan mendapatkan listrik murah bagi masyarakat.

Perkembangan Mesin Stirling di dunia

 

Dalam usaha meningkatkan konversi energy yang bisa didapat dari perubahan energi panas ke kerja, mesin stirling memiliki potensi untuk mencapai efisiensi tertinggi dari semua mesin kalor, secara teori sampai efisiensi maksimal mesin Carnot, meskipun dalam prakteknya usaha ini terus dibatasi oleh berbagai sifat-sifat non-ideal dari baik itu  fluida kerjanya maupun bahan dari mesin itu sendiri, seperti gesekan, konduktivitas termal, kekuatan tensile, creep, titik lebur, dll. Mesin ini dapat dioperasikan melalui berbagai sumber panas yang dapat mencukupi, seperti tenaga matahari, kimia maupun nuklir.

Dibandingkan dengan mesin pembakaran internal, mesin Stirling memiliki potensi untuk lebih efisien, lebih tenang, dan lebih mudah perawatannya.

Belakangan ini, keuntungan mesin Stirling terus meningkat, hal ini dimungkinkan dengan adanya kenaikan harga energi, kelangkaan sumber energi, sampai kepedulian tentang masalah lingkungan seperti pemanasan global. Ketertarikan yang meningkat terhadap mesin Stirling ini berakibat dengan terus bertambahnya penelitian mengenai peralatan Stirling tersebut. Aplikasinya termasuk pemompaan air, astronautik, dan sebagai pembangkit listrik untuk sumber-sumber panas yang tidak sesuai dengan mesin pembakaran dalam seperti contohnya  energi matahari.

Karakteristik mesin Stirling yang berguna lainnya adalah jika yang disuplai energi mekanik maka ia dapat beroperasi sebagai heat pump.

 

Bahkan di Canada, Untuk memajukan pengujian gabungan panas dan teknologi listrik , IRC dan Sumber Daya Alam – Natural Resources Canada ( NRCan ) telah membuktikan instalasi yang cepat dan pengujian sistem mikro CHP . Kemampuan kinerja CHP(Combined Heat and Power) mikro telah menunjukkan dan membuktikan bahwa alat tersebut cocok bagi perumahan.
Di Amerika erikat, Advanced Stirling Radioisotop Generator ( ASRGs ) adalah jenis baru yang sedang dikembangkan oleh NASA dan Departemen Energi . Seperti mesin Stirling yang lain , ASRG mengkonversi energi panas menjadi listrik , dimana dalam perangkat , piston digerakkan oleh panas dari sumber bahan nuklir .

Di Indonesia,  kita dapat memanfaatkan energy mata hari di siang hari, sedang di malam hari kita data  menggunakan sampah sebagai bahan bakarnya. Sehingga mndapat keuntungan ganda sekaligus, yaitu :

  1. Membantu mengatasi penanggulangan ampah,
  2. Penydiaa energy listrik murah bagi masyarakat.

Saya ingin tahu yang konfigurasi mesin Stirling menghasilkan kekuatan terbaik untuk rasio ukuran dan bagaimana saya bisa memperbaiki dari sana ( design silinder , Pengaturan api gas temperatur tinggi, pendingin air dingin dengan kipas radiator & , dll ? ) perlu eksperimen lebih banyak. Saya ingin menghindari untuk mengisi silinder dengan gas , seperti hygrogen atau helium yang mungkin bocor dan memerlukan system Pemompaan dan  sistem penyimpanannya yang rumit.
Saya awalnya berencana menggabungkan system Mesin Stirling dengan mesin uap, mungkin merupakan solusi termudah untuk meningkatkan tekanan pada permukaan power piston dibanding mengganti fluida dengan gas helium atau yang lain seperti yang dikembangkan oleh NASA di Amerika Seriat.

Eksperimen Saya :

Beberapa waktu yang lalu, saya melakukan eksperimen membuat mesin stirling sederhana dengan menggunakan kaleng bekas dan PVC. Semua jenis mesin, mulai dari jenis LTD (low-temperature difference), Alpha, Beta dan Gamma. Hasilnya tidak mengecewakan, selain menghasilkan putaran motor yang cukup bagus, proses pembuatannyapun tidaklah terlalu susah. Karena kondisi tangan saya yang lumpuh kiri akibat troke 11 tahun yl, terpaksa saya minta bantuan sopir / asisten saya  untuk mengerjakan dan menyelesaikan semuanya sesuai arahan yang saya berikan.

Kedepan, percobaan ini akan saya tingkatkan  untuk membuat mesin Stirling dengan eskalasi ukuran yang lebih besar sehingga menghasilkan tenaga yang cukup untuk memutar generator listrik yang cukup untuk minimal satu rumah (minimal sekitar 3,000 watt).

Setelah terbukti mampu memutar  generator 3-5HP, akan saya tingkatkan lagi dengan pembuatan mesin lapangan dengan bahan bakar sampah dengan daya yang lebih besar lagi (sekitar 800KW-1MW) sebagai PLTS (Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Sampah) untuk paling tidak keperluan satu kecamatan . Tentunya design mesinnya harus isesuaikan dengan medan/lapangan sampahnya.

Harapan saya

  1. Apa bila tiap – tiap kecamatan setidaknya memiliki 1 buah PLTS (Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Sampah), saya kira akan sangat membantu Pemerintah dalam penanggulangan sampah dan penyediaan tenaga listrik bagi masyarakat.
  2. Bila berhasil, saya ingin menularkan hasil percobaan ini ke muda-mudi dan masyarakat lain di seluruh pelosok Indonesia, aagar mereka dapat membangun PLTS sendiri di tempat mereka masing-masing, sehingga cepat tersebar.

Selanjutnya mohon do’a yang tulus dari bapak/ibu2 pembaca agar harapan ini terkabul.

Jakarta, 30 September 2013

Windu Hernowo

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Ledakan Tabung Gas : Benahi Standard Prosedurenya


Beberapa bulan terakhir ini sering  kita dengar ledakan gas tabung 3 kg kembalimengguncang  Indonesia. Mulai dr gas tabung di tempat perbaikan kapal, sampai dengan ledakan di Tanjung Duren dan tempat2 lain di Indonesia, sampai2 ada rakyat yang meminta tanggapan presiden karena Ridho Januar yang mengalami luka bakar dari kaki hingga muka, telah mmbuat pimpinan DPR prihatin. Continue reading

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Service-Profit Chain Audit


Service-Profit Chain Audit

A service-profit chain audit helps companies determine what drives their profit and suggests actions that can lead to long-term profitability. As they review the audit, managers should ask themselves what efforts are under way to obtain answers to the following questions and what those answers reveal about their companies.

Profit and Growth

1. How do we define loyal customers?

Customers often become more profitable over time. And loyal customers account for an unusually high proportion of the sales and profit growth of successful service providers. In some organizations, loyalty is measured in terms of whether or not a customer is on the company rolls. But several companies have found that their most loyal customers—the top 20% of total customers—not only provide all the profit but also cover losses incurred in dealing with less loyal customers.

Because of the link between loyal customers and profit, Banc One measures depth of relationship—the number of available related financial services, such as checking, lending, and safe deposit, actually used by customers. Recognizing the same relationship, Taco Bell measures “share of stomach” to assess the company’s sales against all other food purchases a customer can potentially make. As a result, the fast-food chain is trying to reach consumers through kiosks, carts, trucks, and the shelves of supermarkets.

2. Do measurements of customer profitability include profits from referrals?

Companies that measure the stream of revenue and profits from loyal customers (retention) and repeat sales often overlook what can be the most important of the three Rs of loyalty: referrals. For example, Intuit provides high-quality, free lifetime service for a personal finance software package that sells for as little as $30. The strategy makes sense when the value of a loyal customer is considered—a revenue stream of several thousands of dollars from software updates, supplies, and new customer referrals. With this strategy in place, Intuit increased its sales to more than $30 million with just two U.S. field sales representatives.

3. What proportion of business development expenditures and incentives are directed to the retention of existing customers?

Too many companies concentrate nearly all their efforts on attracting new customers. But in businesses like life insurance, a new policyholder doesn’t become profitable for at least three years. In the credit-card finance business, the breakeven point for a new customer is often six or more years because of high marketing and bad-debt costs in the first year of a relationship with cardholders. These costs must be defrayed by profits from loyal customers, suggesting the need for a careful division of organizational effort between customer retention and development.

4. Why do our customers defect?

It’s important to find out not only where defectors go but also why they defect. Was it because of poor service, price, or value? Answers to these questions provide information about whether or not existing strategies are working. In addition, exit interviews of customers can have real sales impact. For example, at one credit-card service organization, a phone call to question cardholders who had stopped using their cards led to the immediate reinstatement of one-third of the defectors.

Customer Satisfaction

5. Are customer satisfaction data gathered in an objective, consistent, and periodic fashion?

Currently, the weakest measurements being used by the companies we have studied concern customer satisfaction. At some companies, high levels of reported customer satisfaction are contradicted by continuing declines in sales and profits. Upon closer observation, we discovered that the service providers were “gaming” the data, using manipulative methods for collecting customer satisfaction data. In one extreme case, an automobile dealer sent a questionnaire to recent buyers with the highest marks already filled in, requiring owners to alter the marks only if they disagreed. Companies can, however, obtain more objective results using “third party” interviews; “mystery shopping” by unidentified, paid observers; or technologies like touchscreen television.

Consistency is at least as important as the actual questions asked of customers. Some of Banc One’s operating units formerly conducted their own customer satisfaction surveys. Today the surveys have been centralized, made mandatory, and are administered by mail on a quarterly basis to around 125,000 customers. When combined with periodic measurement, the surveys provide highly relevant trend information that informs the managerial decision making process. Similarly, Xerox’s measures of satisfaction obtained from 10,000 customers per month—a product of an unchanging set of survey questions and very large samples—make possible period-to-period comparisons that are important in measuring and rewarding performance.

6. Where are the listening posts for obtaining customer feedback in your organization?

Listening posts are tools for collecting data from customers and systematically translating those data into information in order to improve service and products. Common examples are letters of complaint. Still more important listening posts are reports from field sales and service personnel or the logs of telephone service representatives. Intuit’s content analysis of customer service inquiries fielded by service representatives produced over 50 software improvements and 100 software documentation improvements in a single year. USAA has gone one step further by automating the feedback process to enter data online, enabling its analysis and plans departments to develop corrective actions.

7. How is information concerning customer satisfaction used to solve customer problems?

In order to handle customer problems, service providers must have the latitude to resolve any situation promptly. In addition, information regarding a customer concern must be transmitted to the service provider quickly. Customers and employees must be encouraged to report rather than suppress concerns. For example, one Boston-area Lexus dealer notified its customers, “If you are experiencing a problem with your car or our service department and you can’t answer ‘100% satisfied’ when you receive your survey directly from Lexus, please give us the opportunity to correct the problem before you fill out the survey. Lexus takes its customer surveys very seriously.”

External Service Value

8. How do you measure service value?

Value is a function not only of costs to the customer but also of the results achieved for the customer. Value is always relative because it is based both on perceptions of the way a service is delivered and on initial customer expectations. Typically, a company measures value using the reasons expressed by customers for high or low satisfaction. Because value varies with individual expectations, efforts to improve value inevitably require service organizations to move all levels of management closer to the customer and give frontline service employees the latitude to customize a standard service to individual needs.

9. How is information concerning customers’ perceptions of value shared with those responsible for designing a product or service?

Relaying information concerning customer expectations to those responsible for design often requires the formation of teams of people responsible for sales, operations, and service or product design, as well as the frequent assignment of service designers to tasks requiring field contact with customers. Intuit has created this kind of capability in product development teams. And all Intuit employees, including the CEO, must periodically work on the customer service phones. Similarly, at Southwest, those responsible for flight scheduling periodically work shifts in the company’s terminals to get a feel for the impact of schedules on customer and employee satisfaction.

10. To what extent are measures taken of differences between customers’ perceptions of quality delivered and their expectations before delivery?

Ultimately, service quality is a function of the gap between perceptions of the actual service experienced and what a customer expected before receiving that service. Actual service includes both final results and the process through which those results were obtained. Differences between experiences and expectations can be measured in generic dimensions such as the reliability and timeliness of service, the empathy and authority with which the service was delivered, and the extent to which the customer is left with tangible evidence (like a calling card) that the service has been performed.

11. Do our organization’s efforts to improve external service quality emphasize effective recovery from service errors in addition to providing a service right the first time?

A popular concept of quality in manufacturing is the importance of “doing things right the first time.” But customers of service organizations often allow one mistake. Some organizations are very good at delivering service as long as nothing goes wrong. Others organize for and thrive on service emergencies. Outstanding service organizations do both by giving frontline employees the latitude to effect recovery. Southwest Airlines maintains a policy of allowing frontline employees to do whatever they feel comfortable doing in order to satisfy customers. Xerox authorizes frontline service employees to replace up to $250,000 worth of equipment if customers are not getting results.

Employee Productivity

12. How do you measure employee productivity?

13. To what extent do measures of productivity identify changes in the quality as well as the quantity of service produced per unit of input?

In many services, the ultimate measure of quality may be customer satisfaction. That measure should be combined with measures of quantity to determine the total output of the service organization. At ServiceMaster, for example, measures of output in the schools and hospitals cleaned under the company’s supervision include both numbers of work orders performed per employee hour and the quality of the work done, as determined by periodic inspections performed by ServiceMaster and client personnel. Similarly, Southwest Airlines delivers relatively high levels of productivity in terms of both quality and quantity. In fact, outstanding service competitors are replacing the typical “either/or” trade-off between quality and quantity with an “and/also” imperative.

Employee Loyalty

14. How do you create employee loyalty?

Employee loyalty goes hand in hand with productivity, contradicting the conventional wisdom that successful service providers should be promoted to larger supervisory responsibilities or moved to a similar job in a larger business unit. ServiceMaster and Taco Bell have expanded jobs without promoting good service workers away from their customers. At ServiceMaster, effective single-unit managers are given supervisory responsibilities for custodial, maintenance, or other workers at more than one hospital or school. Taco Bell gives restaurant general managers a “hunting license” to develop new sales sites in the neighborhoods served by their restaurants and rewards them for doing it.

15. Have we made an effort to determine the right level of employee retention?

Rarely is the right level of retention 100%. Dynamic service organizations require a certain level of turnover. However, in calibrating desired turnover levels, it is important to take into account the full cost of the loss of key service providers, including those of lost sales and productivity and added recruiting, selection, and training.

Employee Satisfaction

16. Is employee satisfaction measured in ways that can be linked to similar measures of customer satisfaction with sufficient frequency and consistency to establish trends for management use?

Taco Bell studies employee satisfaction through surveys, frequent interviews, and roundtable meetings. Customer satisfaction is measured by interviews with customers conducted biannually and includes questions about satisfaction with employee friendliness and hustle. Both the employee and customer satisfaction rankings are comprehensive, store-specific, and conducted frequently. With these data, the company can better understand overall trends and the links between employee and customer satisfaction.

17. Are employee selection criteria and methods geared to what customers, as well as managers, believe are important?

At Southwest Airlines, for example, frequent fliers are regularly invited to participate in the auditioning and selection of cabin attendants. And many take time off from work to join Southwest’s employee selection team as it carries out its work. As one customer commented, “Why not do it? It’s my airline.”

18. To what extent are measures of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, or the quality and quantity of service output used in recognizing and rewarding employees?

Employee recognition may often involve little more than informing individual employees or employees as a group about service improvements and individual successes. Banc One goes one step further, including customer satisfaction measures for each banking unit in its periodic report of other performance measures, mostly financial, to all units.

Internal Service Quality

19. Do employees know who their customers are?

It is particularly difficult for employees to identify their customers when those customers are internal to the company. These employees often do not know what impact their work has on other departments. Identifying internal customers requires mapping and communicating characteristics of work flow, organizing periodic cross-departmental meetings between “customers” and “servers,” and recognizing good internal service performance.

In 1990, USAA organized a PRIDE (Professionalism Results in Dedication to Excellence) team of 100 employees and managers to examine and improve on a function-by-function basis all processes associated with property-and-casualty insurance administration, which included analyzing customer needs and expectations. The PRIDE effort was so successful that it led to a cross-functional review of USAA’s service processing. Service processing time has been reduced, as have handoffs of customers from one server to another.

20. Are employees satisfied with the technological and personal support they receive on the job?

The cornerstone of success at Taco Bell is the provision of the latest in information technology, food service equipment, simple work-scheduling techniques, and effective team training. This practice led to the establishment of self-managing teams of service providers. Also, the quality of work life involves selecting the right workers. Winners like to be associated with winners. Better employees tend to refer people they like and people like themselves. Internal service quality can also be thought of as the quality of work life. It is a visible expression of an organization’s culture, one influenced in important ways by leadership.

Leadership

21. To what extent is the company’s leadership:

  1. energetic, creative vs. stately, conservative?
  2. participatory, caring vs. removed, elitist?
  3. listening, coaching, and teaching vs. supervising and managing?
  4. motivating by mission vs. motivating by fear?
  5. leading by means of personally demonstrated values vs. institutionalized policies?

22. How much time is spent by the organization’s leadership personally developing and maintaining a corporate culture centered around service to customers and fellow employees?

Leaders naturally have individual traits and styles. But the CEOs of companies that are successfully using the service-profit chain possess all or most of a set of traits that separate them from their merely good competitors. Of course, different styles of leadership are appropriate for various stages in an organization’s development. But the messages sent by the successful leaders we have observed stress the importance of careful attention to the needs of customers and employees. These leaders create a culture capable of adapting to the needs of both.

Relating the Measures

23. What are the most important relationships in your company’s service-profit chain?

24. To what extent does each measure correlate with profit and growth at the frontline level?

25. Is the importance of these relationships reflected in rewards and incentives offered to employees?

Measures drive action when they are related in ways that provide managers with direction. To enjoy the kind of success that service organizations like Southwest Airlines, ServiceMaster, and Taco Bell have enjoyed, looking at individual measures is not enough. Only if the individual measures are tied together into a comprehensive picture will the service-profit chain provide a foundation for unprecedented profit and growth.

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Putting the Service-Profit Chain to Work (10)


Relating Links in the Chain for Management Action

While many organizations are beginning to measure relationships between individual links in the service-profit chain, only a few have related the links in meaningful ways—ways that can lead to comprehensive strategies for achieving lasting competitive advantage.

The 1991 proprietary study of a property-and-casualty insurance company, cited earlier, not only identified the links between employee satisfaction and loyalty but also established that a primary source of job satisfaction was the service workers’ perceptions of their ability to meet customer needs. Those who felt they did meet customer needs registered job satisfaction levels more than twice as high as those who felt they didn’t. But even more important, the same study found that when a service worker left the company, customer satisfaction levels dropped sharply from 75% to 55%. As a result of this analysis, management is trying to reduce turnover among customer-contact employees and to enhance their job skills.

Similarly, in a study of its seven telephone customer service centers, MCI found clear relationships between employees’ perceptions of the quality of MCI service and employee satisfaction. The study also linked employee satisfaction directly to customer satisfaction and intentions to continue to use MCI services. Identifying these relationships motivated MCI’s management to probe deeper and determine what affected job satisfaction at the service centers. The factors they uncovered, in order of importance, were satisfaction with the job itself, training, pay, advancement fairness, treatment with respect and dignity, teamwork, and the company’s interest in employees’ well-being. Armed with this information, MCI’s management began examining its policies concerning those items valued most by employees at its service centers. MCI has incorporated information about its service capabilities into training and communications efforts and television advertising.

No organization has made a more comprehensive effort to measure relationships in the service-profit chain and fashion a strategy around them than the fast-food company, Taco Bell, a subsidiary of PepsiCo. Taco Bell’s management tracks profits daily by unit, market manager, zone, and country. By integrating this information with the results of exit interviews that Taco Bell conducts with 800,000 customers annually, management has found that stores in the top quadrant of customer satisfaction ratings outperform the others by all measures. As a result, it has linked no less than 20% of all operations managers’ compensation in company-owned stores to customer satisfaction ratings, realizing a subsequent increase in both customer satisfaction ratings and profits.

However, Taco Bell’s efforts don’t stop there. By examining employee turnover records for individual stores, Taco Bell has discovered that the 20% of the stores with the lowest turnover rates enjoy double the sales and 55% higher profits than the 20% of stores with the highest employee turnover rates. As a result of this self-examination, Taco Bell has instituted financial and other incentives in order to reverse the cycle of failure that is associated with poor employee selection, subpar training, low pay, and high turnover.

In addition, Taco Bell monitors internal quality through a network of 800 numbers created to answer employees’ questions, field their complaints, remedy situations, and alert top-level management to potential trouble spots. It also conducts periodic employee roundtable meetings, interviews, as well as a comprehensive companywide survey every two or three years in order to measure satisfaction. As a result of all this work, Taco Bell’s employee satisfaction program features a new selection process, improved skill building, increased latitude for decision making on the job, further automation of unpleasant “back room” labor.

Relating all the links in the service-profit chain may seem to be a tall order. But profitability depends not only on placing hard values on soft measures but also on linking those individual measures together into a comprehensive service picture. Service organizations need to quantify their investments in people—both customers and employees. The service-profit chain provides the framework for this critical task.

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Putting the Service-Profit Chain to Work (9)


Leadership Underlies the Chain’s Success

Leaders who understand the service-profit chain develop and maintain a corporate culture centered around service to customers and fellow employees. They display a willingness and ability to listen. Successful CEOs like John Martin of Taco Bell, John McCoy of Banc One, Herb Kelleher of Southwest, and Bill Pollard of ServiceMaster spend a great deal of time with customers and employees, experiencing their companies’ service processes while listening to employees for suggestions for improvement. They care about their employees and spend a great deal of time selecting, tracking, and recognizing them.

For example, Brigadier General Robert McDermott, until recently chairman and CEO of USAA, reflected, “Public recognition of outstanding employees flows naturally from our corporate culture. That culture is talked about all the time, and we live it.” According to Scott Cook at Intuit, “Most people take culture as a given. It is around you, the thinking goes, and you can’t do anything about it. However, when you run a company, you have the opportunity to determine the culture. I find that when you champion the most noble values—including service, analysis, and database decision making—employees rise to the challenge, and you forever change their lives.”

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Putting the Service-Profit Chain to Work (8)


Employee Satisfaction Drives Loyalty

In one 1991 proprietary study of a property-and-casualty insurance company’s employees, 30% of all dissatisfied employees registered an intention to leave the company, a potential turnover rate three times higher than that for satisfied employees. In this same case, low employee turnover was found to be linked closely to high customer satisfaction. In contrast, Southwest Airlines, recently named one of the country’s ten best places to work, experiences the highest rate of employee retention in the airline industry. Satisfaction levels are so high that at some of its operating locations, employee turnover rates are less than 5% per year. USAA, a major provider of insurance and other financial services by direct mail and phone, also achieves low levels of employee turnover by ensuring that its employees are highly satisfied. But what drives employee satisfaction? Is it compensation, perks, or plush workplaces?

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